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Snuff Bottle and Stopper
Roses, Rocks, and Quail
Quails among Chrysanthemums with Chinese Roses and Rocks

Artist/maker unknown, Chinese

Made in China, Asia

Late 18th - early 19th century

Opaque white glass with enamel decoration; jadeite and ivory stopper with ivory spoon

2 5/8 x 1 1/16 inches (6.7 x 2.7 cm)

Curatorial Department:
East Asian Art

Object Location:

Currently not on view

Accession Number:

Credit Line:
Gift of Major General and Mrs. William Crozier, 1944

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Snuff-made of tobacco that is ground into a powdered form and spiced with aromatic substances-was introduced to China from Japan in the late seventeenth century. Chinese elites believed that the powder had medicinal properties, and initially used cylindrical medicine bottles to hold this new "Japanese tobacco." Soon after, the Kangxi Emperor (reigned 1662 - 1722)-known for his fondness for snuff and a devoted patron of the arts-established a series of workshops in Beijing to manufacture small, high-quality objects for court use, including snuff bottles. The repertoire of bottle shapes, materials, and motifs dramatically expanded under imperial patronage, and artisans facilitated the dispensing of the tobacco by adding stoppers with attached ivory spoons.

Snuff bottle production reached aesthetic and technological heights during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1736 - 1795), who particularly appreciated the artfulness of the miniature containers. Members of the Qianlong court frequently exchanged the exquisite receptacles as gifts, and by the mid-nineteenth century, snuff bottles had become mandatory items of apparel for Chinese gentlemen and those who aspired to this status. The popularization of these vessels helps account for the many glass bottles produced to resemble jade, agate, quartz, lapis lazuli, and other precious materials: glass snuff bottles were less expensive and a good imitation passed all but the closest scrutiny. Chinese interest in snuff bottles as collectibles continued into the twentieth century, when delicate, inside-painted wares dominated the market.

The quail and chrysanthemum create a popular rebus (an jü) for living peacefully. The Chinese rose, known as yueji, or a flower that blossoms almost every month, conveys the wish for longevity through the four seasons, especially when depicted together with rocks, another common symbol of longevity.